Antoine Riard, a Bitcoin core developer and security researcher, has expressed concerns about the increasing centralisation of Bitcoin's layer-two scaling solution Lightning Network.

Riard, who recently left the Lightning Network project, expressed his belief that many developers are prioritising the interests of venture capitalists over the network's security and original mission.

He argued that this centralisation poses significant risks, including the possibility of systemic failures and increased vulnerability to censorship.

Despite these concerns, Riard acknowledged that the Lightning Network has experienced fewer attacks than many Ethereum Layer 2 solutions.

Riard resigned from his position in October, citing security concerns and fundamental challenges facing the Bitcoin ecosystem as reasons.

At the time, he warned that the Bitcoin community faces a hard dilemma as a new type of attack, known as replacement cycling, puts the Lightning Network in a perilous position.

The Lightning Network is a layer-two solution built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. It aims to improve the scalability and efficiency of Bitcoin transactions by enabling off-chain, peer-to-peer transactions.

Users can open payment channels on the Lightning Network, conduct multiple transactions off-chain, and settle the final result on the Bitcoin blockchain.

Replacement cycling attacks are increasingly targeting these payment channels recently, exploiting inconsistencies between individual mempools to steal funds from channel participants.